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Problems Associated with Samples Collection from People with Different Ages in Rural Communities of Pakistan

Short Communication                              Vol:1,Issue:1

Abid Jan, Nazia Khan


Sample collection from people in rural communities is a big problem as people refuse to give sample or interview due to lack of awareness and education in them. We conducted a study to find out the main causes of non-cooperation with researchers. A total of 400 people were interviewed in 13 different rural communities asking about sample and those who refused were asked about the reason(s). 112(28%) people from 13-25 years, 127(31.8%) from 26-35years, 21(5.25%) from 36-45 years of age and 80(20%) from 46- up to 80 years and above were interviewed. 150(37%) were found cooperative, 133(33.25%) were non-cooperative, and 117(29.25%) were little/intermediately cooperative. The reason for non-cooperation was found as lack of education, traditional customs, and lack of tangible benefits. Lack of awareness and education is still an important factor for failure of research and fruitful outcomes.

Key Words: Sample Collection, Challenges in research, Rural community.

SAJMED.2015; 1(1):17-20                                                           PDF Download 


The process and outcomes of a research process are greatly affected during data collection in rural areas (1). Ethnicity greatly affects the process of disease and its treatment. There is a large number of ethnic and racial contrasts in health care provided to patients who suffer from diseases. Despite cultural factors, there are various differences in psychological responses to sufferings (2). The diseased people have various beliefs and customs that affect their expectations regarding health care (3). The misinterpretation of religion regarding polio vaccines caused a huge problem in disease eradication. The parents (elders) refuse the vaccination on the ground that it is forbidden in religion (4). The failure of campaigns regarding vaccination is mainly caused by religion, awareness, politics, insecurity, and lack of social responsibilities (5). The current study was conducted to find out the main causes behind non-cooperation of people during sample/data collection in rural areas.

Materials and Methods

The data was collected through a standardized questionnaire from 13 different rural communities. A total of 400 persons were intervened in pseudo sample collection. Those who refused to cooperate in sample giving were interviewed for finding the reasons behind refusal. Four age groups were made for data collection i.e. 112(28%) people from 13-25 years, 127(31.8%) from 26-35years, 21(5.25%) from 36-45 years of age and 80(20%) from 46- up to 80 years and above. The children below 13 were lifted on the ground that their opinion is that of their parents. The questions were asked about education of the person(s), ethnic problem, financial or other demands, religious and cultural problems. Those who were willing to cooperate were excluded from the interview.


150(37%) were found cooperative and willing to give samples and 133(33.25%) were completely not cooperative while 117(29.25%) were found a little cooperative i.e. they were willing to give swabs from their bodies but not the sample of urine or stool.


The problems on non-cooperation of people in rural communities are at the peak. People do not understand the importance of research due to lack of education especially in old aged. These problems resulted in incomplete information about diseases and failure of interventions. Awareness campaigns by the government and media (print and electronic) can play a vital role in overcoming this problem.